Symposium "the three Rs in research project design: a prerequisite for good science"

The Three Rs - Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement - are successfully applied
in scientific research in a range of scenarios including husbandry, care practices and
experimental settings. They provide a framework for considering important ethical
issues when planning an animal experiment. The main objectives of the Three Rs are to
perform humane research on animals and to impact positively on the quality of research.
A crucial role to the success of these achievements is due to proper
experimental design.
The opening session of this symposium will
focus on the importance of the Three Rs to
achieve high quality science; replacement
will be covered by presenting updated
information and practical examples,
systematic review and critical analysis of
the scientific literature will be described
as key to identify relevant questions and
to plan proper experiments. Appropriate
approaches to help alleviating severe
suffering in animals used in research and
testing, a central issue in Refinement, will
also be discussed.
The drive to maximise standardization, the motto of
animal experimentation, will be challenged in the context of the
so-called reproducibility debate. Some of the challenges and strategies being developed to
improve the quality of “in vivo” experiments at institutional level will be considered.
Finally, the important role of the animal facilities and of the Animal Welfare Bodies in the
implementation of the Three Rs will be presented and discussed.
The Three Rs - Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement - are successfully applied
in scientific research in a range of scenarios including husbandry, care practices and
experimental settings. They provide a framework for considering important ethical
issues when planning an animal experiment. The main objectives of the Three Rs are to
perform humane research on animals and to impact positively on the quality of research.
A crucial role to the success of these achievements is due to proper
experimental design.
The opening session of this symposium will
focus on the importance of the Three Rs to
achieve high quality science; replacement
will be covered by presenting updated
information and practical examples,
systematic review and critical analysis of
the scientific literature will be described
as key to identify relevant questions and
to plan proper experiments. Appropriate
approaches to help alleviating severe
suffering in animals used in research and
testing, a central issue in Refinement, will
also be discussed.
The drive to maximise standardization, the motto of
animal experimentation, will be challenged in the context of the
so-called reproducibility debate. Some of the challenges and strategies being developed to
improve the quality of “in vivo” experiments at institutional level will be considered.
Finally, the important role of the animal facilities and of the Animal Welfare Bodies in the

The Three Rs - Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement - are successfully applied in scientific research in a range of scenarios including husbandry, care practices and experimental settings. They provide a framework for considering important ethical issues when planning an animal experiment. The main objectives of the Three Rs are to perform humane research on animals and to impact positively on the quality of research. A crucial role to the success of these achievements is due to proper experimental design.

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